[Page a1r]
    A shorte dictionarie for yonge beginners. Gathered of good authours, specially of Columel, Grapald, and Plini. ⟨by J. Withals. (v. En[?]d)⟩
    ⟨Lond.⟩ ANNO. M.D.LXVIII.
    [Page a1v][Page a2r]
    THE PROLOGVE.

    To the right worshipfull syr Thomas Chaloner knight, and Clerke of the Kynges maiesties priuie Counsayle.

    ALbeit right worshipfull, that this my treatise is bothe to vyle and base to bée set foorthe vnder your protection, beynge woorthely estéemed of all men, to be as well learned wyse and vertuouse, as any gen- tleman in this realme, notwithstandinge vpon hope of the humanitee and gentlenesse, which is euer in- cident to persons of sutche woorthie qualities, I am at this present bolde, hauing no acquaintance with yo[?]ur maistership, to dedicate this my rude collections vnto you, praying you to accepte it as a thinge written by me to induce children to the Latine to(n)gue, not moued thereto with the desire of vaine glory but with a feruente affection and loue I beare vnto my coun- trey. For accordynge to the sayinge of the deuine philosopher Plato. We are not borne onely for our owne commoditée[?], but partly our parentes, partly our fréendes, and partly our coun- trey, doth clayme a certaine dewtie of vs, whiche thinge made Codrus kynge of Athens, Curtius and Decius Romayne knightes, also Zopirus the noble persion, with diuers others to iopard their liues for the sauegard of their countreis, which examples of Infidels were sufficient to reproue me, if I should refuse to take a little peyne for the profyte of the publyke wealthe, and specially to preserue the tender youthe thereof from the infectioun of barbarousnesse, whiche therewith wil bée soone corrupte, not possible of longe tyme to be restored.

    For as Horace doth witnesse, the potte will longe sau[?]our of the lycour wherewith it is seasoned. Also the finest colours will soonest be staygned, neyther can they be so soone purified and made cleane agayne. These thynges considered, I haue resorted to the most famous and ancient autho[?]urs, out of the

    A.ij.whiche[Page a2v]THE PROLOGVE.

    whiche as out of cleare fountaynes I haue drawen as dili- gentlye as I coulde, the propre names of thinges conteyned vnder one kynde, and disposed them in suche ordre, that a very childe b[?]eyng able to reade, may with little labour perfitely im- printe them in memory: Whiche shall not be onely profitable for them nowe in t[?]heir tendre age, but hereafter when they shalbe of[?] more iudgement and yeres, it shalbe vnto them a sin- gular treasure: for the lacke whereof they shalbe compelled, as I haue herde many profounde clerkes bothe in disputacion as also in familiar communication to vse in stéede of the pro- per and naturall woord[?]e,[?] a paraphrase or circumlocucion.

    Now if in the transla[?]ting, or in the englishyng of these woor- des I haue erred, as I can not but so doo in so weightie a mat- tier, or if I haue omitted any thinge, as I haue done many purposely, because diuers greate learned men can not agrée v- pon them, I humbly submitte my selfe to your maystershippes correction, whome I knowe to bee excellentlye well learned bothe in the Gréeke and in the Latine, prayinge you here- after, whan occasion shall serue, to put your helpynge hande to the finisshynge of this little booke, whiche if you doo by the exaumple of syr Thomas Elyote that woorthy knyghte, you shall not onely binde all that be studious to praye for you, but also purchase to your selfe immortall fame and honour, whiche I pray God sende you, with longe life to his pleasure.

    FINIS.
    [Page a3r]
    THE TABLE.
    • ADiectiues, belonginge some to the body, some to the mynde. fo. 78
    • Adiectiues of order, from the first to a thousande. fo. 82
    • Adiectiues of numbre. fo. 83
    • Aduerbes of numbre. fo. eod.
    • Affinitée. fo. 66
    • Ages. fo. 71
    • Aire, with [(that)] perteineth. fo. 2

    B

    • ¶ Baker, and brewer, with other vittailers. fo. 29
    • Bake house, with his vessels and instrumentes. fo. 42
    • Barbar with his shoppe and instrumentes. fo. 37
    • Bath, stew or hot house.fo. 51
    • Battayle with his appendentes. fo. 74
    • Beastes that laboure. fo. 15
    • Bed chambre, with the apparell. fo. 50
    • Bees. fo. 6
    • Birdes. fo. 4
    • Birdes of the water. fo. 5
    • Birdes about the house. fo. 5
    • Boultyng house. fo. 42
    • Broderer. fo. 36
    • Brew house, with vessels and instrumentes. fo. 42
    • Buttrye, with his vessels. 43

    C

    • ¶ Carpenter, with his instru- mentes, and suche as worke in tymbre. fo. 31
    • Churche yarde (and) churche with ornamentes, and tha[?]t belongeth. fo. 61
    • Citée, with that perteineth to a citée. fo. 54
    • Clothe maker of linnen, with his instrumentes. fo. 33
    • Clothe maker of woull, with his instrumentes. fo. 33
    • Clothynge or apparayle for men. fo. 52
    • Clo[?]thyng for women. fo. 54
    • Cobler or Botcher. fo. 37
    • Corne. fo. 20
    • Corne fielde, with that belongeth. fo. 20
    • Corne market. fo. 56
    • Colours of cloth. fo. 34
    • Coriar, with his instrumentes. fo. 37
    • Craftes men. fo. 34

    D

    • ¶ Deiry house, or chéese house his vesselles, and that perteyneth. fo. 41
    • Dier, with his colours. fo. 54
    • Diuine seruice, with the appertinences. fo. [...]6
    • Draper. fo. 35

    E

    • ¶ Earthe, with that belon-
    A.iij.geth[Page a3v]THE TABLE.
    • geth to it. fo. 10
    • Ewry, with vessels, instrumentes, and other, that lo(n)geth to the ewry. fo. 44

    F

    • ¶ Feire. fo. 56
    • Fields[?] and lande abrode in the countrey. fo. 13
    • Fishes of the sea. fo. 8
    • Fisher with his instrumentes. fo. 29
    • Fisshe market. fo 56.
    • Fiue wittes. fo. 81
    • Flesshe market. fo. 56
    • Flies and other. fo. 6
    • Foure elementes. fo. 2
    • Foure partes of the yere. fo. 22
    • Foure partes of the worlde. 3
    • Foure f[?]ooted beastes. fo. 14
    • Fouler or birder, with his instrumentes. fo. 30
    • Freshe water fishe. fo. 9
    • Fruites. fo. 23
    • Fruite market. fo. 56
    • Fuller. fo. 34

    G

    • ¶ Goldesmith. fo. 35

    H

    • ¶ Hall, with thinges belongynge to the hall. fo. 50
    • Heardes men, haywardes, sheaperdes, with such other as kepe cattell. fo. 17
    • Hell, with thinges conteyned in it. fo. 12
    • Herbes, gathered by dyuers men, specially by maister Linaker. fo. 25
    • Herbe market. fo. 56
    • Hogges. fo. 16
    • Housebandeman, with suche other as labour in houseba(n)dry. fo. 17
    • Housinge for the housbandma(n), with that belongeth. fo. 37
    • Houses of office with vessels and instrumentes. fo. 42
    • Holy place with that perteyneth. fo. 64
    • Housynge as in a towne or citie. fo. 55
    • Hunter with his instrumentes. fo. 30

    I

    • ¶ Instrumentes of musike. fo. 63.
    • Instrumentes of warre, and battayle. fo. 65
    • Iter, a iourney, with that belo(n)geth. fo. 81
    • Iusting place. fo. 55

    K

    • ¶ Kechin, with his partes, vessels, (and) instrume(n)tes. fo. 45
    • Kinrede. fo. 69

    L

    • ¶ Labourers. fo. 34
    • Larder house. fo. 45
    Lawe[Page a4r]THE TABLE.
    • Lawe, with the ministers therof. fo. 60

    M

    • ¶ Mayre of a towne or citie, with the subiectes and comminaltée. fo. 57
    • Mayres house. fo. 55
    • Market place. fo. 55
    • Mason with his instrumentes and mattier, wherewith he worketh. fo. 32
    • Meales, as breakefast, diner, and supper. fo. 49
    • Meate. fo. 48
    • Medowe with that belongeth, fo. 21.
    • Mettals and the place where they be digged. fo. 12
    • Miller. fo. 29
    • Ministers and seruauntes in the churche, with that perteineth. fo. 62
    • Minstrels and dauncers. fo. 65

    N

    • ¶ Names of birdes. fo. 4
    • Names of fisshes. fo. 8
    • Names of corne, with that perteyneth. fo. 19
    • Names of trées. fo. 22
    • Names of wynes. fo. 25
    • Names of herbes. fo. 25
    • Names of kinrede. fo. 65
    • Names of affinitie, with the appertinence. fo. 66

    O

    • ¶ Officers and waiters, as in a great housholde. fo. 49

    P

    • ¶ Pantrie with bread and instrumentes. fo. 43
    • Parke. fo. 14
    • Partes of a horse. fo. [...]5
    • Partes of a trée. fo. 2
    • Partes of housing, with that belongeth. fo. 39
    • Partes of the body. fo. 67
    • Phisition and chirurgio(n), with the appertinence. fo. 80
    • Places where maistries and playes be shewed. fo. 55
    • Place where market is kepte. fo. 58.
    • Places for correction, a[?]nd for execution. fo. 57
    • Place where executio(n) is done. fo. 57.
    • Playinge with instrumentes that belong to playing. fo. 63
    • Planettes. fo. 1
    • Potage. fo. 47
    • Poticarie. fo. 80
    • Pryson, fetters, pillorie, galowes, and other. fo. 57

    Q

    • ¶ Quoyner, with his weightes. fo. 37

    R

    • ¶ Renning place. fo. 59
    • Ruler in the prouince with
    his[Page a4v]THE TABLE.
    • his subiectes, officers, and that perteyneth. fo. 57

    S

    • ¶ Sau[?]ce. fo. 47
    • Schole with that belongeth therto. fo. 61
    • Sea, with that belongeth to it. fo. 8
    • Sempster or shepster. fo. 35
    • Serpentes, wormes, and créepynge beastes. fo. 12
    • Seuen planettes. fo. 1
    • Shell fishe. fo. 9
    • Sherman. fo. 35
    • Shippe with other water vessels. fo. 9
    • Shomaker with his shoppe, and instrumentes. fo. 37
    • Sickne[?]sse, gréefe, and diseases. fo. 71
    • Smith, with his forge, and instrumentes. fo. 32
    • Spices. fo. 29
    • Stable, with that pertayneth fol. 38.
    • Stewes, with baudes, harlottes, and théeues. fo. 56
    • Strife and wronge, as extorcion, disceite, or thefte. fo. 59
    • Surgion. fo. 81

    T

    • ¶ Taylour, with his shoppe and instrumentes. fo. 35
    • Tilling of the lande, with the instrumentes of husbandrye. fo. 18
    • Towne, with that perteineth. fo. 41
    • Tymes. fo. 1
    • Trées with that belongeth. 21
    • Twelue signes. fo. 1

    U

    • ¶ Uine yarde, with that belongeth. fo. 24
    • Uitteyler, that selleth bread, meate, and drinke, as in an ale house or other. fo. 30
    • Uncleanesse of the body. fo. 70
    • Uncleanesse of the soul, with filthie qualities. fo. 69
    • Uplandishe village. fo. 41

    W

    • ¶ Water bearer. fo. 3
    • Warderobe, with his instrumentes. fo. 52
    • Ware, and thinges belongyng therto. fo. 78
    • Water. fo. 7
    • Weauer with his shoppe and instrumentes. fo. 34
    • White meate and egges. fo. 51
    • Wyndes. fo. 3
    • Wynes, with theyr names and colours. fo. 25
    • Wyne seller, with his vessels and instrumentes. fo. 44
    • Woode market. fo. 56
    • Wrestling place. fo. 55
    FINIS.
    [Page b1r]for children.1

    Aether.

    In æthere hæc sequentia.

    THe skie, hic æther, ætheris. Sed æther quandoq(ue) eleme(n)tum ignis, quandoq(ue) aerem significat.
    The sphere, sphara, græce.
    A starre, stella, læ. Sed stella est vnica, sidus plurimum stellarum conuentus dicitur.
    The. vy. starres, septentriones, pleiades, Vergiliæ dicuntur. Cometes, tis, vel cometa, tæ. Stella est crinita, a blasing starre.
    The northpole, Polus, li.
    Charles waine, Vrsa minor.
    The day starre, diesper, vel lucifer, ri, id est stella Veneris, dum mane cum lucio oritur. Descit, it wareth day.
    The euen starre, hesper, vel hesperus, & vesper. Vesperascit, it draweth towarde night.

    The. xii. Signes.

    Duodecim Signa.

    Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces.

    The. vii. Planets.

    Septem planem.

    Saturnus, Iupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercurius, Luna.
    The chaunge of the moone, Nouilunium, coniunctio lunæ, vel coitus lunæ.
    The full of the Moone, plenilunium, oppositio lunæ.
    The time betwéene the olde Moone and the newe, Interlunium.
    The Moone is at the full, luna est semestris.
    The Eclipse of the Moone, deliquium lunæ, eclipsis, græce.
    The wane of the Moone, luna senescens.

    Tymes.

    Tempora.

    Tyme past, tempus præteritum.
    Tyme now, tempus præsens.
    Tyme to come, tempus futurum.
    The time when all thinges be still, conticinium. Sed aliquando dicitur primum tempus noctis. Gallicinium dicitur tempus, quo galli canunt.
    The dawninge, aurora, vel tempus matutinum. Diluculum dicitur tempus, quo lux diei incipit. Diluculo, las, to ware daie.
    The light, lumen, nis. Mane dicitur diei principium quum dies clarus est.
    ⟨P. ⟩B⟨. gb.⟩The[Page b1v]A little dictionarie
    The beginnynge of the daye, exortus diei. Crepusculum dicitur & tempus ante solis exort[?]um, & post solis occasum, mo[?]ste commonly vsed for the twylight of the euenyng. [Lucescit], it wareth light.
    The day, hic vel hec dies, & diecula, diminutiue. Diescit, it wareth day.
    The risinge of the sunne, exortus solis. Oreor, reris, vel oriris, ortus sum, to rise as the sunne riseth. Fulgeo, ges, si, sum, to shine as the sunne doeth.
    The sunne beames, radij solares. Radio, as, to[?] geue light as the sunne beames doo.
    Brightnesse, splendor, doris, Iubar, iubaris. Sed iubar signifieth sometime stellam matutinam, somtime the brightnesse of the sunne, of starres, and of golde, or siluer. (et)c. Splendescit, it wareth bright.
    Cleerenesse, claritas, tatis.
    Cleere, as fayre weather, serenus, na, num. Clarus, ra, rum, interdum certus, & indubitatus.
    Fayre (and) cleere, as after raine, sudum, di. Clarescit, it wareth clere.
    Warme by reason of the sun, apricus. Apricor, caris, signifieth, in loco aprico esse.
    The middes of the daye, meridies, medius dies. But meridies, is sometime taken for the south parte of the worlde.
    The shadowe, vmbra, bræ, & vmbella, læ diminutiue. Vmbraculum, locus in quo vmbra est, the place where shadow is. Vmbro, bras, to shadowe.
    The goynge downe of (the) sunne, occasus, sus. Occido, dis, di, casum, to goe downe, as the sunne dothe.
    The eueninge, vesperaræ, vel tempus vespertinum. Serum substantiuum, est extrema pars diei. Item serum, significat, whey: vt infra, vbi de lactarijs habetur.
    The night, nox, tis.
    The first sleape in the nighte, concubium bij. Noctescit, it wareth night.
    Starrelight, nox sublustris.
    Darkenesse, obscuritas, tatis, tenebræ, brarum in plur. Tenebrosus, sa, sum, full of darkenesse.
    Darke, as in shadowe, or for lacke of light, opacus, paca.
    Darke, as a sentence that is
    harde[Page b2r]for children.2
    harde to understande, obscurus, ra, rum.

    Quatuor anni tempora cum appendicibus.

    The. iiii. partes of the yeare.

    The sprynge of the yeare, ver, ueris. The spryngynge of the leafe, germinatio, onis.
    Greenenesse, viriditas, tatis. Vireo, vires, rui, caret supi. & viresco, cis, to ware gréene. Germino, as, & pubesco, cis. Cresco, cis, creui, cretum, to springe or growe.
    The sommer time, æstas, tatis.
    The time when the day is longest, solstitium, æstiuum, vel estiuale, æquidium dicitur, when the daye and nighte be of one length. Aestiuo, uas, to sommer.
    Heying time, foenifacium.
    Hey, foenum, ni.
    The time to gather corne and fruite, messis, sis. But messis sometime is taken for ripe corne. Meto, tis, ssui, ssum, to reape corne or other thinges.
    Cleanyng or leafinge of corne in handfulles togither, spicilegium. Aliquando spicilegium dicitur tempus ipsum. Colligo, gis, legi, ctum, to ga- ther togither.
    Winter time, hyems, mis, bruma, mæ. But bruma is properly when the day is shorte[?]st. Hyemo, mas, to winter.
    The time when (the) daye is shortest, solstitium brumale, vel hyemale.

    Other times in the yere.

    Alia tempora.

    A yeare, annus, ni.
    A leape yeare, annus bisextilus, annus intercalaris. Biennium est tempus duorum anno.
    Of this yere, as wine, wheat, fruite or other thinge, hornum, & hornotinum, vt vinum, vel triticum hornotinum. i. huiu[?]s anni.
    Halfe a yere, dimidium anni.
    A quarter of a yeare, tempus trimestre.
    The time of twoo monethes, Tempus bimestre, duorum mensium. Sic [trimestre], quadrimestre, quinquemestre &c.
    The tyme of sixe wéekes, sesquimensis.
    A moneth, mensis, sis.
    A fortenighte, dimidium mensis, vel dimidia[?]tus mensis.
    A wéeke, septimana, næ, hebdomada, dæ, vel hebdomas, madis, græce.
    The time of. xxiiij. howers,
    B. ij.dicitur[Page b2v]A little dictionarie
    dicitur dies, ei.
    The tyme of twoo dayes, biduum.
    The time of. iij. daies, triduum.
    The time of fo[?]wer daies, quatriduum.
    A day and[?] a halfe, sesquidies.
    That that dureth all the daye, perdius, dij.
    An hower (and) an halfe, sesquihora.
    An howre, hora, ræ, horula, læ, & horuncula, diminutiue.
    Halfe an howre, dimidium horæ, vel semihora.
    A quarter of an howre, quarta pars horæ, vel quadrans horæ.
    The shortest time that can be, Momentum, punctum temporis, Also the estimation, weighte, or valure, of a thinge is called momentum.

    Dies hebdomadæ.

    The daies of the weeke.

    Monday, dies lunæ.
    Tuisday, dies martis.
    Wednesday, dies mercurius.
    Thursday, dies Iouis.
    Friday, dies veneris.
    Saturday, dies sabbati.
    Sonday, dies dominicus, vel dies solis.
    Holy day, dies festus.
    Halfe holy day, dies intercisus.
    Woorkeday, dies profestus.
    Fastinge day, dies ieiunij, vel seriæ esuriales.
    A feast day, epularis dies.

    Quatuor elementa.

    The. iiii. Elementes.

    Fyer, ignis, nis.
    The ayre, Aer, ris.
    Water, aqua, quæ.
    The earth, terra, ræ.
    Pyra, a fyre wherein dead bodies were buried, vel rogus called of some, a bonfire.

    The Ayre. Aer.

    In Aere.

    Thonder, tonitru, tonitrus, vel tonitruum. Tonat, it thundreth.
    The lightninge, fulgur, guris, & fulguratio, nis. Fulgurat, it lightneth.
    The thunder bolte, fulmen, nis. Fulminat, fulgurio, ris, riui, id est fulgur iacio.
    Echo, or echus, a sounde or noyse that is made in a valleye, or in a woodde, or suche other.
    Frost, gelu, indeclinabile, & gelicidium, est ipsum gelucadens. Gelat gelascit, it fréeseth.
    A hoare

    About this text

    Title: A shorte dictionarie for yonge beginners. : Gathered of good authours, specially of Columel, Grapald, and Plini [excerpt].
    Author: Withals, John.
    Edition: Taylor edition
    Series: Taylor Editions: Treasures
    Editor: Edited by Theresa Plomer.

    About this edition

    This is a facsimile and transcription of A shorte dictionarie for yonge beginners. : Gathered of good authours, specially of Columel, Grapald, and Plini. Withals, John. London: Henry Wykes, M.D.LXVIII. It is held by the Taylor Institution Library (shelf mark: ARCH.8o.E.1568).

    The transcription was encoded in TEI P5 XML by Theresa Plomer.

    Transcribed from: Taylorian ARCH.8o.E.1568 Images scanned from Taylorian ARCH.8o.E.1568

    Introduction

    A shorte dictionarie for yonge beginners, or “A little dictionarie for children”, as it is called in the running titles, was compiled by John Withals and is here represented in a print from 1568. While earlier prints (e.g. 1556, cf. EEBO) exist, the do not differ dramatically from this edition, apart from typesetting and sometimes spelling. However, the dictionary was later revised and expanded, which might indicate a prolonged interest in the book. The given print includes a title page, introduction, table of contents, and the dictionary itself.

    The English-Latin dictionary presents terms in Early Modern English with their Latin counterparts, often including related words and further comments both in Latin and English. Throughout the book, the typesetting consistently differentiates between the two languages by rendering English in gothic script. However, unlike a modern dictionary, the headwords are not sorted alphabetically. Instead, they are grouped thematically, or as the author describes it, “in suche ordre, that a very childe beyng able to reade, may with little labour perfitely imprinte them in memory” (a2v). Therefore, the dictionary may not only be interesting linguistically in terms of early modern lexicography and translation correspondences between Early Modern English and Latin. The book's author also shows didactic intent to facilitate early language learning for children. It is for that second aspect that I decided to include the full table of contents – a part that might otherwise seem rather boring – in this excerpt, since it conveys the semantic fields the author deemed most important for young learners of Latin, and since it also reflects the semantic structure of the whole book. Thus, the “little dictionarie” can illustrate an early modern approach to language learning while at the same time being a refreshing way to brush up one's Latin nowadays.

    Availability

    Publication: Taylor Institution Library, one of the Bodleian Libraries of the University of Oxford, 2019. XML files are available for download under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License . Images are available for download under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License .

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    Source edition

    A shorte dictionarie for yonge beginners. : Gathered of good authours, specially of Columel, Grapald, and Plini [excerpt]. London : Henry Wykes , 1568.  

    Editorial principles

    Created by encoding transcription from printed text.

    This is a diplomatic transcription encoded from printed text. Spelling and variation have been reproduced faithfully, unless there were clear typographical errors. Differentiation between 'y' and 'i' as well as 'u' and 'v' is included. However, the different allographs for 's' and 'r' ('ſ' and 'ꝛ') are not represented. Punctuation is used according to the original while complying with modern usage of whitespace. Abbreviations are expanded in (brackets). Apart from the introduction, linebreaks have not been encoded. Any other features such as the two-column layout, catchwords, page numbers, or running titles have been reproduced according to the original.

    Dictionary entries are encoded as follows: English headwords in <orth>, with Latin translations and grammatical information in <def>. Additional comments and explanations can be found in <lbl>, while related Latin terms are encoded using <re>. Within <lbl> and <re>, differentiation between English and Latin is expressed through highlighted English terms (rendered as "gothic"). While the two languages are differentiated via typesetting throughout the text, this difference has only been encoded in the discussed environment to highlight the term-translation structure of the additional notes to the main dictionary entries.